I hope your grammar is adequate, that you have a good grasp on the English language and that you are literate, as I plan to go well beyond the everyday Noun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb, Pronoun, Preposition and Conjunction here in this post. What I am trying to say is that this may not be for everybody. Let’s start with Homophones, which are words that will sound the same, but they will have different meanings and spellings, and they are usually expressed in pairs where each of two words, but there could be more words are pronounced the same way, however they would differ in meaning, origin, or spelling, consider for instance the words new and knew. Homophone seems like a strange word, but if you look for them, you can notice them every day while you are reading. OK here is another odd word, etymology and it is very similar to the word entomology, however they are not synonyms (have the same meaning), homophones (have the same pronunciation), or homographs (have the same spelling), so I should get to the point soon, or I will lose everyone.
Etymology is basically the chronological account of the birth and development of a particular word or element of a word, where as entomology is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of insects. Clearly these two words have different spellings, pronunciations and meanings, but the spelling and pronunciation are both close to each other, so therefore they could become a malaprop. OK another term that I need to define, but because they are similar-sounding words, the malaprop confusion between these two words would create an unintentionally amusing effect, as if someone might say the etymology of the word baboon is derived from monkeys. You may be familiar with the word Yogiism, which was used so well by Lawrence Peter “Yogi” Berra who was a professional American baseball player, coach and manager. A Yogiism is a malaprop and the one that I like the best is, ‘It ain’t over till it is over.’ I am sure that is clear as mud now and there I just made a sarcastic simile.
I cannot cover every aspect of the English language, but I thought that learning about certain grammatical terms might be useful to other writers. Sort of similar to the synonym, homophone and homograph, we have the allonym, allophone and alphagram. Isn’t this a wonderful language? An allonym is something that all writers should be familiar with as it is a pseudonym that is often applying to ‘ghostwriting’ (where I have a real name, but on WordPress I am called Newepicauthor or A Unique Title For Me). An allophone is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds or it can refers to variant of a single sound (a phoneme) which is pronounced slightly differently to another variant. Examples of allophones are the different ‘p’ sounds in ‘spin’ and ‘pin’, and the different ‘t’ sounds in ‘table’ and ‘stab’. It is quite common for these differences to go unnoticed because it is so slight that most people are unaware of them and would probably consider these sounds to be identical. An alphagram is an anagram (rearranging the letters of another, such as ‘cinema’ to form ‘iceman’), (although not necessarily a meaningful or even pronounceable word, as usually defined by the word anagram) in which the letters of the new word or phrase are in alphabetical order, such as the anagram ‘a belt’ for the source word ‘table’, so this is basically less than an anagram.
Let’s just cover three more easy ones and then I will end this. I like this one, aptronym is a person’s name that matches his/her occupation or character, which is regarded as amusingly appropriate such as the roofer Dwayne Pipe, or parks supervisor Theresa Green, or yoga teacher Ben Dover, or hair-stylist Dan Druff, or a lady working in a flower shop Flora Gardner. The word cacophony is used to refer to unpleasant sounding speech, a harsh word, or just plain ugly discordant vocalizing. A synonym for this would be racket, noise, clamor or uproar. It is the opposite of euphony, and human beings generally prefer to use and hear pleasing vocal sounds, rather than unpleasant ones. This brings us to the word capitonym which is a word that changes its meaning (and sometimes pronunciation) when it is capitalized, and here you can think of polish and Polish, august and August, concord and Concord.
If anyone is interested in me covering any more of this weirdness, then please let me know.